A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
Portugal is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards, A founding member of NATO and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, Portugal is also a member of numerous other international organizations, including the United Nations, the European Union, the eurozone and the OECD.
These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies.
The name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, and by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho, the Minho flowing along what would become the northern Portugal-Spain border.
By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugale was already referred to as Portugal.
The region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Celtici and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD.
The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and then by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe.
The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale.
During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497–98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500).
Portugal monopolized the spice trade during this time, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War.
Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories.
The Carthaginians, Rome's adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies.